Cotton Warp Mills
Cotton warp mills produced yarn from cotton fiber to be used for weaving in textile factories. The process involved a number of steps and a variety of machines:
- Bales of cotton were purchased through a merchant in New York City. They were transported to a wharf and sent by water to New Jersey, where they were loaded into a horse-drawn wagon to be taken to the mill site (in this case, the Rosencrantz mill in Ho-Ho-Kus).
- At the mill, the bales were opened, and the raw cotton was spread out so pickers could remove stones, twigs, and other debris. The cotton was then sent through a machine with rollers and beaters, called a scutcher, that opened up the fibers.
- The cotton was run through a lapper or spreader that further prepared the cotton for carding. The cards were large, drum-shaped machines that used rollers and teeth to comb the material and align the fibers into slivers.
- Next, a drawing frame was used to lengthen the slivers and coil them into cans. A speeder further elongated the cotton into a thick, slightly twisted rope, called roving.
- Spinning frames with many spindles drew out the roving and twisted it into yarn. A winding machine, called a spooler, transferred the spun yarn onto larger bobbins. Many bobbins were placed on a rack, and yarn from them was wound onto cylinders.
- The cylinders were then sold and sent to factories to weave textile products.
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